Making Sense of the Geopolitical Pluralization of the Mediterranean
One of the most noteworthy geopolitical developments of the past few years is the visible emergence, or better the return, of multipolarity in the Mediterranean. The perception of a mounting lack of interest on the American side to shape Mediterranean dynamics, and the incapacity of the European Union to fill in the gap, is creating a vacuum that would be inevitably filled by other powers. Against this backdrop, non-Mediterranean actors became more and more significant over the past years. This is clearly the case of Russia and China, two superpowers that―for different reasons, and in different ways―are becoming more and more central in shaping the dynamics of the basin. In addition, the analysis focuses on how the Mediterranean space became more significant for the Gulf Cooperation Council. For Gulf countries, the Mediterranean turned from an area that extended their economic influence into an area in which they have exported their internal rifts, which tend to be replicated in the domestic politics of several Mediterranean countries. This work will thus focus on analyzing the features of the Mediterranean engagement of these three actors.