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The rise of four powerful democracies – Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Turkey – could bolster today’s international order. Yet this outcome is far from assured. The degree to which the four “global swing states,” as this project calls them, will defend and reform the international order remains uncertain. If they do, their rise presents an enormous opportunity for the United States and its European allies. If they do not, they, the United States, and countries across the globe will suffer the consequences.

The Global Swing States Project, which was led by Dr. Daniel M. Kliman of GMF and Richard Fontaine of the Center for a New American Security, examined how the United States and its European allies can partner more closely with Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Turkey to strengthen the international order. Project activities included working groups, research trips, and commissioned papers. 

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Further Reading